He sees Alignment as a model to optimize existing relationships, but it will not help in establishing an optimal relationship between business and IT.
He introduces Business/IT Fusion as the next step in this area.
Critics of Strategic planning and alignment maintain that the implicit dominance of a structured strategy process is questionable in an era where uncertainty and flexibility predominate and the articulation of the strategic intent is difficult (Ciborra,1997 in Avison et al, 2004).
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This poses a significant challenge, because most models of alignment presuppose an existing business strategy to which an IT organization can align itself.