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Indeed, this percentage in five Arab countries—Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE)—is twice that of the comparable percentages in Finland, Canada, and Singapore.

The net enrollment rate for primary education is also high by international standards, except for Iraq, the Palestinian Authority, and Jordan.

Despite the potential for meaningful transitions to democracy in some Arab countries, the general political context for education in the Arab world remains one of considerable authoritarianism.

This authoritarianism is longstanding and is reflected in the structures of educational administrations and institutions in almost all Arab countries.

The need to prepare Arab citizens to become contributing members of open and pluralistic systems is increasingly urgent. But studies commissioned by the Carnegie Middle East Center on citizenship education programs in eleven key Arab nations reveal that a wide gap exists between the stated goals of national education programs and their actual implementation.